Divergence and Convergence
Divergence and Convergence
Convergence | Keeping them separate |
Sequencing them | See also
In creative work, there are two modes of thinking that we use that are
very different but are both very useful for different parts of the
Divergence is the process of thinking broadly, of expanding one's mind,
of going places where one does not normally go. In fact it is very much
what most people think about when they consider creativity.
Divergent thinking is very important in creativity as the process
whereby ideas are generated. Although everyone can do it, some take to it
more easily and find idea creation (sometimes called ideation) both
natural and fun.
For others, it is something more of an effort, both to create the ideas
and also to get over the internal blocks that prevent them from telling
others about their half-formed ideas.
The fear of social punishment and ridicule keeps many from even
admitting to themselves that they could be good at divergent thinking.
Divergent ideation creates a constant flow of ideas, no matter how
good or bad they are (and without even a thought about this), with the
knowledge that they will be sorted out in the subsequent convergent
When you have created a big pile of ideas, the creative activity does
not stop there. The next stage, which can be very difficult, seeks to thin
down the idea set into a very small set of ideas (maybe one) that will be
taken forward for further development.
Judgement and Selection
This approach requires skills of selection, evaluation and judgement to
whittle down the list to the most useful ideas. In this process, there can
be argument and debate about the true potential of ideas.
Retaining creative seeds
A danger here is that the baby gets thrown out with the bathwater, as
good ideas are thrown out with the bad. It is important here to keep a
balance, and the divergent thinkers have an important task to challenge
the ejection of any ideas that may have serious potential.
Keeping them separate
Have you ever been in a thinking session (creative or otherwise) and
seen two groups of people crossing swords, where one group are constantly
trying to keep the exploration open, whilst the other group is trying to
come to a closure point and get a decision made? Maybe you were in one of
these two groups.
The dangers of simultaneity
Divergent and convergent activities do not go well together, and
keeping them deliberately separate is a very good idea. Thus you can
explain the principles to people you will then be able to use the
language, saying 'excuse me, I hear convergence' if someone starts
criticising ideas in the middle of a divergent session.
convergent sessions, further divergence needs to be carefully managed. It
is, however, more important to keep convergence out of divergent
activities, as people easily take criticism of one of their ideas
personally and may just clam up and sit back if they feel this has
How to keep them separate
Separation can be achieve in several ways. You can separate the
sessions by having one after the other (this is most common).
You can also
separate them further in time (eg. to give space for more ideas to be
generated by incubation first).
You can have different groups of people diverging and converging.
You can change location for each - for example having the divergent
session in a relaxed lounge and the convergent session in a formal meeting
Divergence and convergence are not a one-shot thing in serious
creativity and invention practices. They constantly sequence, one after
the other and form a matched pair of activities that enable you to both
think broadly and also stay focused.
Thus you may diverge and converge in problem identification, idea
exploration, product development, market planning, etc.